Endocrine System - DM2


  • The same frequency of type 1 or type 2 diabetes is present as compared to the age-matched, general population, but more studies are necessary to establish the accuracy of this impression.

  • DM2 may lead to alterations in the regulation of thyroid, adrenal and gonadal hormone levels.

  • Hypothyroidism exacerbates DM2.

  • Some reported trouble with sexual function.

  • Elevation of liver enzymes.


  • Fluctuating levels of pain and fatigue.

  • Muscle weakness and irregular muscle stiffness.

  • Painful or irregular menses.

  • Signs/symptoms of hypothyroidism/hyperthyroidism.


  • Discuss the following tests with your doctor:

    • Thyroid function - TSH and free T4 levels.

    • Liver enzymes and bilirubin levels.

    • Hyperlipidemia via testing for levels of serum lipids.

    • Sex hormones in females, glucose levels, HbA1c, PTH, Vitamin D.


  • Refer to OB-GYN specialist as appropriate.

  • Lifestyle changes in diet and exercise.

  • Appropriate use of medications to normalize blood glucose and insulin levels for treatment of insulin resistance.

  • Statins if needed because of an increased cardiovascular risk.

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