Respiratory System - DM2


  • Significant breathing problems that can result from muscle weakness of the diaphragm, abdominal and intercostal muscles and myotonia of these muscles.

  • Poor ventilatory force, low blood oxygen and elevated blood carbon dioxide levels.


  • Fatigue, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and respiratory failure.

  • Insufficient air flow during sleep may contribute to disrupted sleep.

  • Weakness of the swallowing and breathing muscles.

  • Aspiration of food and drink, saliva, nasal secretions and stomach fluids.

  • General anesthesia and intravenous pain medications, especially opiates, can cause respiratory failure.

  • Ineffective cough.

  • Recurrent pulmonary infections.

  • Frequent chest infections.

  • Morning headaches, apnea, fatigue and snoring.


  • Discuss the following tests with your doctor:

    • Sleep study

    • Respiratory tests

    • Clearance capacity


  • Careful perioperative management.

  • Vaccinations for influenza and pneumonia if no contraindications.

  • Respiratory cough assistance and mechanical ventilation (as needed).

  • Consultations from respiratory therapy and pulmonary medicine groups as needed.

  • Airway clearance and lung volume recruitment techniques (e.g., breath stacking, abdominal thrust, the vest).

  • Nighttime ventilatory support and full-time ventilation.

  • Supplemental oxygen.

  • Emergency medical alert devices.

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